Unit 1 The Power of Language
① (1)Critical reading applies to non-fiction writing in which the author puts forth a position or seeks to make a statement. Critical reading is active reading. It involves more than just(不只是，不仅仅是) understanding what an author is saying. Critical reading involves questioning and evaluating what the author is saying, and forming your own opinions about what the author is saying. Here are the things you should do to be a critical reader.(启下句)
1. Critical reading applies to non-fiction writing in which the author puts forth a position or seeks to make a statement.
apply to sb./sth.= be applicable to sb./sth.
apply的派生词：application, applicant, applicable
② Consider the context of what is written. You may be reading something that was written by an author from a different cultural context than yours. (2)Or, you may be reading something written some time ago in a different time context than yours. (3)In either case, you must recognize and take into account any differences between your values and attitudes and those represented by the author.
2. Or, you may be reading something written some time ago in a different time context than yours.
注意区分：sometime / sometimes / some times
3. In either case, you must recognize and take into account any differences between your values and attitudes and those represented by the author. 不论哪种情况，你必须注意并考虑你的价值观和态度与作者所述的价值观和态度有何不同。
those是代词，代替前面的复数名词values and attitudes。代替可数名词单数或不可数名词用that。例如：
The students in your class are more hard-working than those in his class.
The values of the young people differ from those of their elders.
Your voice is more beautiful that that of your classmates.
The price of that book is higher than that of this one.
【单选题】1. The necklace her sister is wearing is much more beautiful than ______ worn by Mary.
· A. this
· B. that
· C. these
· D. those
③ Question assertions made by the author. Don't accept what is written at face value. Before accepting what is written, be certain that the author provides sufficient support for any assertions made. Look for facts, examples, and statistics that provide support.(承上句) Also, look to see if the author has integrated the work of authorities.
④ Compare what is written with other written work on the subject. (4)Look to see that what is written is consistent with what others have written about the subject. If there are inconsistencies, carefully evaluate the support the author provides for the inconsistencies. (承上句)
4. Look to see that what is written is consistent with what others have written about the subject.
be consistent with 与……一致
consist vi. 组成(of);在于(in);符合(with)
The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The beauty of the plan consists in its simplicity.
This doesn't consist with what you told me earlier. 这和你先前告诉我的不符合。
consist的派生词：consistent, inconsistent, consistency, inconsistency
【单选题】2. To tell you the truth, I really hope that your actions will consist ______ your words this time.
· A. of
· B. in
· C. at
· D. with
【解析】本题考查consist的用法。consist of意为"由……组成";consist in意为"在于";consist with意为"与……一致"，故选D。consist at不存在。该句的意思是"说实话，我真希望这次你的言行能一致"。
⑤ Analyze assumptions made by the author. (5)Assumptions are whatever the author must believe is true in order to make assertions. In many cases, the author's assumptions are not directly stated. This means you must read carefully in order to identify any assumptions.(承上启下句) Once you identify an assumption, you must decide whether or not the assumption is valid.
⑥ Evaluate the sources the author uses. In doing this, be certain that the sources are credible. For example, Einstein is a credible source if the author is writing about landmark achievements in physics. Also be certain that the sources are relevant. Einstein is not a relevant source when the subject is poetry.(承上句) Finally if the author is writing about a subject in its current state, be sure that the sources are current(启下句). For example, studies done by Einstein in the early 20th century may not be appropriate if the writer is discussing the current state of knowledge in physics.
⑦ Identify any possible author bias. (6)A written discussion of American politics will likely look considerably different depending on whether the writer is a Democrat or a Republican. (7)What is written may very well reflect a biased position. You need to take this possible bias into account when reading what the author has written with "a grain of salt."
⑧ By being a critical reader, you will become better informed and may change your views as appropriate.
5. Assumptions are whatever the author must believe is true in order to make assertions.
whatever引导的是表语从句，不能换成no matter what。名词性从句(主语，宾语，表语，同位语从句)中，"疑问词ever"不能换成"no matter+疑问词"，状语从句中可以换用。例如：
Whoever comes to our party is welcome. (不能换成no matter who…)
He will lend a helping hand to whoever needs his help. (不能换)
He will buy whatever his son wants. (不能换)
Whatever you do, I will support you. (能换成no matter what…)
6. A written discussion of American politics will likely look considerably different depending on whether the writer is a Democrat or a Republican.
likely adj. / adv.
be likely to do sth.
It's likely that…
a likely result
Profit will most likely have risen by about ?2 million. 利润极可能增加200万英镑左右。(副词)
The likelihood of infection is minimal. 感染的可能性极小。
7. What is written may very well reflect a biased position.
a biased position
be biased to/toward(s)/against