【答案】Terminology consists of technical terms used in particular disciplines and academic areas.
【答案】Compounding, also called composition, is the formation of new words by joining two or more stems. Words formed in this way are called compounds.
【答案】Homonyms are generally defined as words different in meaning but either identical both in sound and spelling or identical only in sound or spelling.
4. phrasal verbs
【答案】Phrasal verbs are idioms which are composed of a verb plus a prep and/or a particle.
5. context (in narrow sense)
【答案】In a narrow sense, it refers to the words, clauses, sentences in which a word appears. This is known as linguistic context, which may cover a paragraph, a whole chapter and even the entire book.
1. What is free morpheme?
【答案】Morphemes which are independent of other morphemes are considered to be free.
These morphemes have complete meanings in themselves and can be used as free grammatical units in sentences. They are identical with root words, as each of them consists of a single free root, for example, man, earth, wind, car, anger.
2. Combine the following affixes into a compound word:
out break baby sit cry in sweet bitter
【答案】out break, bitter-sweet, crybaby, sit-in
【解析】out break(爆发), crybaby(爱哭的人), sit-in(静坐抗议;静坐罢工)都是名词复合词，bitter-sweet(苦乐参半的;又苦又甜的)是形容词复合词。
3. Explain what causes ambiguity in the sentence He is a hard businessman.
I. (Source of the ambiguity) The ambiguity of the sentence is caused by the word hard which is a polysemantic word.
II. (Analysis of the word) The word hard in this context can mean both ‘hardworking’ and ‘difficult’. The context fails to narrow down the meaning so that it is difficult for the reader to decide what exactly the speaker means.
III. (Improvement of the ambiguity) There would be no misunderstanding if the original sentence is extended as “He is a hard businessman to deal with”.
4. Explain radiation of word-meaning development.
【答案】Radiation is a semantic process in which the primary meaning stands at the center and the secondary meanings proceed out of it in every direction like rays. The meanings are independent of one another, but can all be traced back to the central meaning.
1. What is the stylistic meaning of the following word: domicile, residence, abode, home?
Apart from their conceptual meanings, many words have stylistic features, which make them appropriate for different contexts. These distinctive features form the stylistic meanings of words.
This stylistic difference is especially true of synonyms. It is observed that there are few words which have both the same conceptual meaning and the stylistic meaning.
domicile (very formal, official)
abode (poetic)home (general)
2. Explain the characteristics of antonyms according to the sentences.
a. How tall is his brother?
b. How short is his brother?
Antonyms differ in semantic inclusion. Pairs of antonyms are seen as marked and unmarked terms respectively. In many pairs we find that one member is more specific than the other and the meaning of the specific is included in that of the general.
So far as the meaning is concerned, sentence [a] includes the meaning of [b]. The use of tall does not exclude the possibility of his brother being very short. But sentence [b] is much more restricted in sense and is considered semantically abnormal unless the speaker is particularly interested in the “shortness” of his brother or curious enough to find out how short his brother is.