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2020年10月上海自考英语词汇学真题及答案

发布时间:2020-10-28 整编:上海自考网 阅读量: 标签:
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2020年10月上海自考考试马上就要结束了,也有不少真题试卷已经出来了,大家也应该知道练习真题是对大家有好处的,这里 上海自考网 小编就整理了,2020年10月上海自考英语词汇学真

2020年10月上海自考考试马上就要结束了,也有不少真题试卷已经出来了,大家也应该知道练习真题是对大家有好处的,这里上海自考网小编就整理了,2020年10月上海自考英语词汇学真题及答案,供大家参考练习。

2020年10月上海自考英语词汇学真题及答案
 
三、名词解释
 
1. terminology
 
【答案】Terminology consists of technical terms used in particular disciplines and academic areas.
 
【解析】术语指特定学科和学术领域所使用的专有名词。
 
2. compounds
 
【答案】Compounding, also called composition, is the formation of new words by joining two or more stems. Words formed in this way are called compounds.
 
【解析】复合法指由两个或更多的词干相结合而构成新词。以此种方式形成的词被称为复合词。
 
3. homonyms
 
【答案】Homonyms are generally defined as words different in meaning but either identical both in sound and spelling or identical only in sound or spelling.
 
【解析】同形同音异义词指在读音和拼写上或者只是在读音或拼写上相同而词义不同的词。
 
4. phrasal verbs
 
【答案】Phrasal verbs are idioms which are composed of a verb plus a prep and/or a particle.
 
【解析】短语动词是由一个动词外加一个介词和/或小品词构成的习语。
 
5. context (in narrow sense)
 
【答案】In a narrow sense, it refers to the words, clauses, sentences in which a word appears. This is known as linguistic context, which may cover a paragraph, a whole chapter and even the entire book.
 
【解析】狭义上讲,语境是指一个词所在的词群、从句和句群环境,这称为语言环境,可以包括一个段落,一个章节,甚至整个一本书。
 
四、简答题
 
1. What is free morpheme?
 
【答案】Morphemes which are independent of other morphemes are considered to be free.
 
These morphemes have complete meanings in themselves and can be used as free grammatical units in sentences. They are identical with root words, as each of them consists of a single free root, for example, man, earth, wind, car, anger.
 
【解析】彼此之间互相独立的词素叫自由词素。这些词素本身具有完整的意义,在句子中可以用作自由语法单位。自由词素与根词一致,因为根词就是由单个的自由词素构成的。
 
2. Combine the following affixes into a compound word:
 
out break baby sit cry in sweet bitter
 
【答案】out break, bitter-sweet, crybaby, sit-in
 
【解析】out break(爆发), crybaby(爱哭的人), sit-in(静坐抗议;静坐罢工)都是名词复合词,bitter-sweet(苦乐参半的;又苦又甜的)是形容词复合词。
 
3. Explain what causes ambiguity in the sentence He is a hard businessman.
 
【答案】
 
I. (Source of the ambiguity) The ambiguity of the sentence is caused by the word hard which is a polysemantic word.
 
II. (Analysis of the word) The word hard in this context can mean both ‘hardworking’ and ‘difficult’. The context fails to narrow down the meaning so that it is difficult for the reader to decide what exactly the speaker means.
 
III. (Improvement of the ambiguity) There would be no misunderstanding if the original sentence is extended as “He is a hard businessman to deal with”.
 
【解析】此句话是由多义词hard造成的。
 
4. Explain radiation of word-meaning development.
 
【答案】Radiation is a semantic process in which the primary meaning stands at the center and the secondary meanings proceed out of it in every direction like rays. The meanings are independent of one another, but can all be traced back to the central meaning.
 
【解析】辐射型以原始意义为中心,从原始意义发展而来的次要意义就像射线那样四处散去,意义之间互不关联,但都可追踪到核心意义。
 
五、论述题
 
1. What is the stylistic meaning of the following word: domicile, residence, abode, home?
 
【答案】
 
Apart from their conceptual meanings, many words have stylistic features, which make them appropriate for different contexts. These distinctive features form the stylistic meanings of words.
 
This stylistic difference is especially true of synonyms. It is observed that there are few words which have both the same conceptual meaning and the stylistic meaning.
 
domicile (very formal, official)
 
residence (formal)
 
abode (poetic)home (general)
 
【解析】除了概念意义外,很多词带有文体特征,这使得它们适合于不同的语境。这些区别性的特征构成了词的文体意义。文体差异对同义词而言尤其如此。很少有词既有相同的概念意义,又有相同的文体意义。
 
2. Explain the characteristics of antonyms according to the sentences.
 
a. How tall is his brother?
 
b. How short is his brother?
 
【答案】
 
Antonyms differ in semantic inclusion. Pairs of antonyms are seen as marked and unmarked terms respectively. In many pairs we find that one member is more specific than the other and the meaning of the specific is included in that of the general.
 
So far as the meaning is concerned, sentence [a] includes the meaning of [b]. The use of tall does not exclude the possibility of his brother being very short. But sentence [b] is much more restricted in sense and is considered semantically abnormal unless the speaker is particularly interested in the “shortness” of his brother or curious enough to find out how short his brother is.
 
【解析】反义词在语义包容上存在差异。成对的反义词分别被看作是有标记项和无标记项。在很多反义词对中,我们发现其中的一个比另外一个更为具体,而且这些具体词的意义被包含于那些一般词的意义之中。
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